To kick off with, Brandy was invented in the 16th century by the French.
The French Merchants had distilled white wine to reduce shipping costs to Holland. Thus, the name Brandy derived from the Dutch word Brandewijn which denotes " Burnt Wine ".
There are uncountable categories of Brandy. Here, to name a few:
Apple Flavoured ( Calvados )
Pear Infused ( Poire William )