Pratish, please play by our rules.
I understand that you have many, many questions about food. But please, before you ask anything else, go to the board for Culinary Students
. As Greg says there, we are here to help you, but not to do your homework for you.
Off the top of my head, I can think of several informational websites where you might find answers to your questions:epicuriousStarChefsCook's Thesaurus
just to name three. All of these are U.S. based, and so will have measurements in pounds, ounces, cups, etc.
Why do you not ask your college instructors for more help? That's what they are there for: to teach you. Do not be afraid to ask them your questions, especially
if your questions are not about the subjects you are studying. You will show them how passionate you are about learning!
I will leave your questions here, but please, remember that much of the fun of cooking is discovery on your own!