Well here I go
First of all the little white thing that hangs off the yolk is called a chicken, providing you are a fertilized egg. Doesn't matter in the whites, but in the yolk when you cook anglaise it should be strained out. Meringues are funny because they make people do funny things.... like rub a bowl with salt, turn two circles before turning on the machine.... etc.....etc
There are some certain truths..... oil is bad (that means the yolk too), warm whites are good, as is cream of tartar (helps "melt" the oil) most of all proportions are the most important..... Sorry I am metric, but it is great for baking.......
1 litre of egg whites and two kilos of sugar is a meringue...... it represents the most that a litre of egg whites can emulsify (kinda like mayonaise) and remain stable
1 litre of egg whites and 2 kilos plus another 100 or more grams of sugar make a unstable meringue..... it becomes super-saturated so to speak. when you use this on a meringue pie it tends to "sweat" meaning little drops of moisture form on the meringue and it starts to run a bit as the egg white starts to split
1 litre of egg whites and no sugar makes..... ummmm how to describe it? bubble bath foam texture..... stiff but not malable. This is horible stuff to blend into other ingredients, because it "curdles" and does not mix well.
now the dream dish........
1 litre of whites and 1 kilo and 850 grams of sugar..... just shy of the saturation point. Wow,,, soft, malable, you can't over whip it and it stays shiney.
whether you are swiss, french or italian the preceding rules follow.
When the sugar hits the whites it does two things.... melts into water and sucrose... sucrose turns creamy like a fondant (work cooked sugar sirop long enough it toughens up and turns creamy, also known as a fondant)
That is it for now
ps.. use a machine **** it!!!!!!!!!!