ChefTalk.com › ChefTalk Cooking Forums › Cooking Discussions › Food & Cooking › Effects of cooking methods on food
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:

Effects of cooking methods on food

post #1 of 13
Thread Starter 
As we know that food is constantly taken in by all living things everyday:beer:, it is therefore necessary for us to know the different cooking methods.:chef: When we discuss about the various cooking methods, we should also take note of the effects of these cooking methods have on food. :lips: For example, nutrient loss when cooking, browning effects like maillard reaction, etc. So, what are the different types of cooking methods? How these cooking methods affect food in terms of appearance/chemical structure/nutrients? :crazy:
post #2 of 13
Well there's a basic distinction of wet and dry heat cooking.

Further more you can break it down to each type:

Dry:
Sautee, Pan Fry, Broil, Deep Fry

Wet:
Boil, Braise, Poach (deep and shallow), steam

The main thing when choosing you're cooking method is looking at your ingredient (usually the protein). Is it tough/tender? Does it have alot of its own flavor? Is it sturdy/delicate?

You don't want to go grilling a delicate piece of fish... unless you feel like picking the bits out of the coals. In the same respect you don't go cooking off a piece of meat with all kinds of connective tissue over rocket high heat.. unless you have a mechanical jaw that will do all the chewing you're going to be stuck doing.

Also, if you're going to be doing wet heat cooking, almost always (in my opinion), you will be browning off the protein before moving on further.

Lastly, does your cooking method choice help create flavor in your protein... or not?

If it doesn't, you'll more than likely have some kind of sauce to go with it (especially if it doesn't have much natural flavor anyway). Can your cooking choice provide you with a sauce of its own, or will you have to make one aside from the protein you are cooking?

So far, I haven't found many wet heat methods that didn't give you a baseline to start creating a sauce with... heck, even some dry heat cooking methods still give you a great baseline to start with.

So without getting into the chemical/nutritional side of it all... consider these things when choosing you're cooking method for protein:

Is it tough or tender?
Is it sturdy or delicate?
Does it have flavor of its own?

There's other things to consider as well, but I find that these are a good base to start with.
post #3 of 13
Sihua89 -- your question sounds like an essay you have to write for school. :o Why don't you write it first, and post it here so we can discuss it?
"Notorious stickler" -- The New York Times, January 4, 2004
Reply
"Notorious stickler" -- The New York Times, January 4, 2004
Reply
post #4 of 13
Well, there are 14 known and commonly used cooking methods. Blade 55440 has described some of them. Blanching can be done in water or oil, poaching can be done with movement, (sabayon) or without (creme caramel), grilling can be done on a metal grid or on a spit.

Some of the less common cooking methods are:
Gratinate
Poele (don't know the english translation for this one)
Glazing


Many have made a good arguement for smoking as a cooking method as well
...."This whole reality thing is really not what I expected it would be"......
Reply
...."This whole reality thing is really not what I expected it would be"......
Reply
post #5 of 13
Ditto!!!!!!
My failures in life are few. The most blatant of these is my attempts at retirement. I've studied the process carefully but cannot begin to understand how it is done.
Reply
My failures in life are few. The most blatant of these is my attempts at retirement. I've studied the process carefully but cannot begin to understand how it is done.
Reply
post #6 of 13
Thread Starter 
Hi there. The question is actually not my assignment or essay but it is a question created by me and my purpose is to see the responses from different people and also learn as we go on. Here is my response. :look:

There are two types of cooking methods. Dry-heats and moist-heat cooking methods. Dry-heat cooking methods involves cooking food in oil or hot air while moist-heat cooking methods involves cooking food in water or moisture. Examples of dry-heat cooking methods include the different types of frying, sautéing, baking, grilling, etc. Examples of moist-heat cooking methods include steaming, boiling, pressure cooking, par-boiling, etc.:lips:

The nutrients loss in cooking means like for example, loss of water-soluble vitamins through moist-heat cooking methods or even loss of other nutrients due to the extreme temperatures. :eek:

When foods are cooked, they undergo some chemical reactions. Like for example, for the dry-heat cooking method, some chemical reactions including maillard reactions, caramelization, dextrinization, etc. affects the physical appearance of the food as well as the structure of the food. Some physical appearances include the colour, taste, texture or even the flavour as the above reactions gives the food a distinct flavour. ;)
post #7 of 13
Sihua, it sounds like you should do a before and after analysis of various foods cooked in various ways. How does one measure the amount of vitamin A in a carrot, for instance? Carrots come in different sizes and even if you did it by weight, the variety and conditions during growth can greatly affect the nutritional value.

Therefore, you cannot look up the nutritional values in a book. Do you have access to a laboratory that could run a before and after analysis? Get a lot of a particular type of carrot grown in the same place. Take a weight of carrot and get the nutritional values. Then take the same weight of carrot, cook it by a particular method and then get the nutritional values. From that experiment, you should be able to determine any loss of nutritional value.
post #8 of 13
Thread Starter 
mm...i believe there are many books in the library especially the ones on nutrition will have the general amount of vitamins or other nutrients in a specific food of medium size.:suprise: There are also some other facilities like the chemical analysis software, recipes analyzer, etc which will tell us generally how much of a nutrients the food contain. :chef: Anyway when we are talking about nutrient loss in food, we do not refer it to what we can see with our eyes. However, some food may have "signs" which shows that there is nutrient loss. Like for example when we overcook vegetables, the vegetables will change its' colour to a dull one. You may want to search for the internet or look for books related to nutrients, which will tell u more about this is details.:)
post #9 of 13
Sihua89, I apologize for the tap on the wrist. It's good to know that you are really interested.

But: the information you're asking about should be in your own textbook(s); if not, consider finding a different school ;) . The basic facts of food science are not much open to conjecture or opinion, regardless of what Adria, This, Dufresne, Achatz, et al are doing with their chemistry sets.

If you have access to them in your school's library, have a look at Harold McGee's On Food and Cooking (either the original or the update) and/or Shirley Corriher's Cookwise. Both of these are written for real people, not for food scientists. And whereever you are, look for similar books.
"Notorious stickler" -- The New York Times, January 4, 2004
Reply
"Notorious stickler" -- The New York Times, January 4, 2004
Reply
post #10 of 13
My point is that you shouldn't use such books because they are all done on averages (which are made of highs and lows) and may not pertain to what you are doing. Someone else may have run the experiment I suggested, so it may not need to be repeated. Again, growing conditions, refrigeration, etc, all affect nutrition. The books that contain nutritional values ignore all that.
post #11 of 13
And, to make matters even MORE complicated, nutritional losses in the laboratory may, in fact, be nutritional gains in the human body.

Confused?

Turns out that cooking most vegetables does, in fact, cause a measurable loss of nutrients. So. Are the raw food fadists right? Is it more nutritious to eat only raw vegetables?

No. Most of the nutrients in most vegetables are locked up inside cellulose cell walls where, unless we happened to chew the wall open, they pass on through our guts without giving up their chemical bounties. Cook them, however, and you'll break down the cell walls, making their insides digestible.

The paradox is that you'll get more nutrition from vegetables that have been subjected to cooking methods that cause measurable nutrient losses.

The bottom line is that, unless you have some nutritional disease, say scurvy or beriberi, don't worry about it. We get more nutrients than we need.

Enjoy.
post #12 of 13
Thread Starter 
Yes, I agree that food should be cooked to release the nutrients. However, we must also take note that we should now overcook the food as some nutrients are not heat-resistant. :( We should also take note of not soaking food in water or washing food for a long time as water-soluble vitamins in the food would be lost into the water. We may do so unless we are using the water for the soup or gravy, etc.:suprise:
post #13 of 13
Thread Starter 
I agree to you that most of the nutrients in most vegetables are locked up inside cellulose cell walls and that we have to cook the food in order to release the nutrients. However, we should also take note that vegetables should not be cooked for a long time as the colour will turn dull and that some nutrients are not heat-resistant and will be lost. We should also consider the cleaning of the vegetables. Some people will soak vegetables in water to remove the pesticides and smell while some other people will wash their vegetables for a very long time. I would recommend that we should not wash vegetables for a very long time as water-soluble nutrients such as vitamins would be lost into the cooking water. We may do so if we are using the water for making the soup, gravy, etc. as the nutrients are still in the cooking water.:look:
New Posts  All Forums:Forum Nav:
  Return Home
  Back to Forum: Food & Cooking
ChefTalk.com › ChefTalk Cooking Forums › Cooking Discussions › Food & Cooking › Effects of cooking methods on food