food science and chemistry... yup, im a nerd...
Gear mentioned in this thread:
Harold Mcgee. It seems to be the bible of Kitchen science.
You might also ask the question in the baking forum at eGullet Society
eG Forums (The eGullet Society for Culinary Arts & Letters)
Though I dearly love On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen , I think that Cookwise: The Secrets of Cooking Revealed will better meet your needs. She has extensive coverage, along with sample recipes, showing the effects of various ingredients and methods in baking.
They're both great books, so your best bet is to use Nicko's Amazon link and buy both.
In the meantime, have a look at Understanding Baking by Joseph Amendola and Nicole Rees. Lots of science, pretty easy to digest. ;)