Good for you!
Here is as good a place as any. E-gullet, too. Your problem is going to be that you don't know enough to really have the questions. But, that's why you're going to school.
As I said.
Peterson or Larousse are very good on the mothers. But first lesson: Don't overrate the mothers. Other than their utility there's nothing that special about most of them. Furthermore, besides Escoffier's five mothers (espagnole, bechamel, veloute, hollandaise, tomate) there are several others just as useful -- mayonnaise for instance. Remember also, there are a number of "right" ways to make most of the mothers. Keep some perspective. A kitchen is a place where you go to cook, not to receive the word of God.
Depends on thickness mostly. Fo 1-1/4" or less: Simple seasoning; no protracted or overly spicy marinade. Direct heat and plenty of it. Turn when the meat releases. If cooking on a grate, rotate for cross-hatching tatoo. Time the first turn for the tatoo. (Learn to) Press with the fingers to determine doneness. Allo the meat to rest. Second lesson: Respect your ingredients. Don't try to make them something they're not.
What is it with everyone and roast chicken? See the "Perfectly Wonderful Roast Chicken" thread in the recipe section. In terms of classic technique -- what I wrote about brining is probably not CIA applicable. The "truss and turn" method is otherwise classic, professional, French technique. Julia Child's method, described in "Mastering the Art ..." is another. Look around the web and see if you can't learn to truss a chicken. Learn to tie knots. That will save you some time.
Learn to free hand sharpen a knife very well. I mean very well. Invest in a good set of stones appropriate for the knives you'll be using at school. Don't spend hundreds of dollars on a knife "set" Yet. Learn to use a sharpening steel -- even if you think you know how to use one. For instance, steeling a knife does NOT include banging the blade against the steel.
Here's an off the top of my head list of most of the major culinary knives: Chef d'chef (big, heavy chef's knife aka "lobster cracker) Chef's or cooks; Slicer; Boning (desosser); Swedish Fillet (same shape as the boning knife, but flexible); Cimiter; Butcher's; Fillet (flexible utility); Utility; regular Paring (couteau office); Sheeps foot paring (pied mouton); Bird's beak aka turning aka bec d'oiseau aka tourne; Salmon slicer; Sole slicer; Ham slicer; gyuto; deba; Western deba; petty (really just a paring knife); yanigaba, sujibiki; nakiri; usuba; santoku; etc. Oh, there's the garde manger knives too. Homie don't do garde manger.
FWIW, the little dimples on a "Granton Edge" are called kullenschiff or simply kullens.
Try and stay simple minded, it works for me.