I'm a little unclear on whether the bread was made in a machine or by hand with machine yeast. I think you're using a machine -- but I'm going to start with general principles before getting specific.
In any case, the beery flavor came from... well... beer. If not beer, something very much like it. During the very long rise (overnight on the counter) the yeast fermented a lot of the flour as a part of its digestive cycle, and that's what you tasted. The technical term for the liquid produced during a yeast fermentation is "hooch," which ought to tell all you need to know about why you tasted sour beer.
kokopuffs mentioned talked about using a poolish, but didn't explain why one would want to. European style breads are often given a sour tang with a "levain" called a "poolish" or a "biga" (pretty much the same things, only a French poolish is made with a higher ratio of water to flour than an Italian biga). The poolish (or biga) is allowed to sit out overnight (or even a couple of days) until it gets a healthy fermentation going, and is then used as part of the flour and part of the yeast quotient. But only part. You can understand why he associated your overnight technique with a poolish.
Similarly "sourdough starters" are used as part, but not all, of the flour quotient of sourdough bread. Extra yeast isn't usually used in sourdough breads, in order to enhance the sour taste of the mature, stressed yeast from the starter.
You unintentionally turned your entire dough into a starter, and got some funky bread. No more overnights for the whole recipe.
As a side note, fifteen minutes is a good bit of kneading time. Take your white-bread dough to the "windowpane" stage, then stop kneading -- no matter how quickly or how long.
If you're using a machine, go ahead and follow the directions unless you get consistently bad results. Whether you are aren't actually looking at the bread for the desired amount of rise, rather than timing it is preferable. When you get the amount of rise you want, move on to the next step. As a rule, don't give the dough more than 90 minutes without moving on.
Not to give an actual answer to a direct answer or anything, but ... If you're going to hold dough overnight, you should hold it in the refrigerator. Most bread bakers consider it excellent practice to form the loaves, and hold them chilled for up to a day before baking. To repeat: Form, then chill.
PS. You certainly can make bread with less yeast than you used. However, unless you allow a long rise time (like you did in all innocence) the amount in your recipe is very common. Standard even. One tsp of instant yeast per cup of flour is a little heavy handed, but only a little -- and you used less, which is the general idea. If you give significantly less yeast a longer first rise time, you'll get a better developed flavor in the bread -- so Dillbert's sense of proportion makes sense in that sense, but it's not a rule or anything. Make sense?