This site ought to help quite a bit with your research. Cooking 101: Dices, Paysanne, Lozenge, and Tourné | The New Cook
. I'd save the link, there's a lot there for a beginning culinaire.
There are limits to the kind of help members are supposed to give culinary students, but since your question is so basic, the answer is listed in so many places including Wiki as well as the site posted above, and this post is longer and more painful than most books would be, I'll address it insofar as to say learn but don't take the measurements in the list too seriously. Exact sizes change in every restaurant according to the chef. Also, a new dice description, "micro brunoise" has crept into the language over the past few years.
So, from finest to coarsest the names are: Micro-brunoise, fine brunoise, brunoise, fine or small dice, medium dice, coarse or large dice.
Micro and fine brunoise are not always distinct from one another. It's fair to think of either or both of being "as fine as a person with decent knife skills can cut." Some people have superior knife skills and can cut extremely fine, consistent dice. Mostly to amuse themselves.
Personally, I don't include paysanne as a dice, but as a separate cut. No argument with those who do, to each their own.
Classic knife prep for dice is a process with a more or less sacred, engineered sequence. The sequence of prepping dice, starting with a food of almost any shape, is block, plank, stick, dice.
Blocks and planks are made as large as you can handle comfortably and the food will allow. If sticks are the final object, or out of habit, sometimes planks are cut so one dimension is equal to that of a stick -- usually around 2" (50mm). Planks are the first cut of precise dimension -- width. The planks are usually shingled, rather than straight-stacked, for cutting sticks. The planks don't have names of which I'm aware. The sticks do, and you need to learn them as well as the dice. Micro julienne, fine julienne, julienne, batonet, baton, and alumette.
I was taught and still do use the spine of my chef's knife (2.5mm at the tang behind the bolster for my particular knife) and the rivets (5.5mm) as a gauge.
Please do not copy and paste this post in lieu of writing your own homework. It's written with a You Will Be Busted guarantee.
Learn to sharpen your knife.
Don't say I didn't warn you,