Regarding the Original Post:
There are a number of hardwood choices which are more or less equal when it comes to cutting board performance, including maple, cherry, walnut, and mahogany. The most common, as already said here, is maple.
The best boards are made so the endgrain is oriented up, towards the knife -- rather than the "side grain" or "long grain." End grain boards look as though they were made from bricks of wood, rather than long strips. However, there are excellent quality boards made from endgrain.
You can't go wrong with a board made by John Boos and Co. It's among the most respected names in the industry, although their boards (not to mention their pieces of what may only be called cutting furniture are overpriced.
I prefer boards without feet -- or at least feet which can be easily removed without leaving obvious scars -- so both sides of the board can be used.
Boards need care. I use "pharmaceutical grade" mineral oil which I buy (wait for it) at the pharmacy. This works for all of my kitchen wood. You can also mix it with beeswax at a ratio of about 4 oil to 1 wax, by heating the oil gently and melting the wax into it, to make a sort of super oil/sealer. Doesn't cost much to make, but they charge a lot for it in stores. The look of the oil/wax is somewhat better and longer lasting than plain oil. However, it requires renewing according to the same schedule.
Once the wood is well oiled, the oil should be renewed every two to three months to stay fresh.
Oiled boards won't warp quite as readily as dry boards but they still require care. Wipe your board often, keep it clean, don't leave it wet. Wipe the area under your board frequently. Don't put the board down on a damp counter. Some people lay towels or pads under the board to reduce noise and keep the board from sliding. If you have anything under your board, make sure it's dry and flat.
Wash your board often, both sides. Let it dry by wiping it the best you can, then finish air drying for several hours (preferably overnight) standing on its side and not laying flat. If the board is reversible, try and even out the use each side gets.
I bought a lagish bamboo board at Wal-Mart to see how it compared to my endgrain maple boards from here and there. It does give slightly harder feedback when I chop on it. But so far at least, I'm not seeing much difference in how my edges hold up. Remember though, I do a lot of steeling because of my particular knives (old French carbon) -- more than many.
FWIW, the buzz among knife nuts is that the problem is not so much the bamboo itself but the glue/resid which holds the strips together to make boards.
Because bamboo is a grass, not a tree; because it grows so fast, and doesn't require cutting "old growth; because a bamboo stand can be replaced in months, and not decades; many believe it's use for utilitarian items is "greener" than using hardwood, even though both are "renewable" each in its own way. FWIW, I agree.