Disclaimer: This isn't legal advice, and should not be construed as such.
So far the advice in this thread is of mixed accuracy.
Not as a matter of pointing fingers, but only to distinguish the various analyses and prescriptions, Cater Chef and chefincollege are entirely wrong.
Theages is wrong insofar as saying it's a grey area, and insofar as advising you take your recipes under certain conditions. On the other hand, his point that a writing might control the situation is a good one.
It's not a grey area at all. Rather it's one or a combination of several situations determined by the actual facts:
Different bright-line rules may govern depending on the facts -- in this case the only real questions are whether or not there's a contract or employment agreement; and if there is, what it says on the subject. Under almost any imaginable set of circumstances, taking the recipes would be suicidal.
Is there a writing?
Since you're asking here, it seems likely that if there is a written agreement, it's either silent on the subject or you don't have a copy. If you there is a written agreement, and you don't have a copy, it's almost certain that you didn't write it -- so if there is a codicil, it's almost certainly in the employer's favor.
As to the rest of it:
It's highly unlikely your recipes are actually intellectual property (IP) which can be "owned" or copyrighted.
Case law is clear that an ingredient list and set of spare instructions cannot be protected. On the other hand, "literary content" of the sort you see in cookbooks for home cooks, such as descriptions of technique, discussions about ingredients , or narratives of how the recipe came about is intellectual property and is governed by copyright.
But none of the things which can make a recipe IP are very common in restaurant recipes -- which tend to be terse and to the point. So, no matter who created them or when they were created -- which would be of material interest if they were IP -- they're almost certainly not your property.
Most likely, what we're actually talking about are "trade secrets," and/or "proprietary knowledge." Unless you have a contract saying otherwise it's likely the employer has all the rights governing them, and they stay with the employer when and if you leave.
If you don't have an individual contract, but the employer uses a form "employment agreement," it's likely there is a "non-compete" clause. If so, you may be barred from taking the recipes with you to any other employer (within a reasonable geographic radius).
Outside of normal ethics, which I see as being lined up on the side of not causing harm to your employer:
If you do take your recipes from your current employer causing her or him economic harm, (s)he has legal remedies which would force you to cure whatever harm your act caused by paying for the economic damages.
Unless there's something you're not telling us, you have no rights in this situation.
Make two copies of all your recipes, put them in separate binders, and make a big deal of turning one of them over to your current employer when you leave.
If you have legal questions, consult an attorney licensed to practice in your state.