One correction, Brian, which probably resulted from your mind running faster than your fingers (doncha just hate when that happens ): Ancho is the dried form of the poblano. Adding to the confusion, of course, is that ancho and poblano, more and more, are being used interchangeably---just as people use the term chipotle as if it's a separate variety.
Siduri, to answer your basic question, yes. In the U.S. at least, "chile" is used generically to describe all hot peppers. The red pepper flakes you remember were Cayenne, but, nowadays, other chiles are used, noteably New Mexico. In theory, the variety should be marked on the jar, but it rarely is. And you have to watch brands, because many of them contain more seed than pepper flakes, which can significantly affect flavor. Usually price point can help determine quality, but that's not always the case.
Labels are really important with it comes to chile powder, too. Most chile powder is a blend that includes one or more types of chile peppers (cayene is the usual choice) along with garlic powder, salt, and, sometimes, other ingredients. If the product name includes more than just the word "chile," however, there's a greater chance of it not being a blend. For instance, if the jar says "Ancho Chile Powder," it's more likely to contain just the ground chiles.