There are a couple of rod-guide tool and jig systems which work with full sized stones. One, the EZESharp Bladesharpener, is made in Australia, the other (Ken Schwartz's "Gizmo") is semi-custom made in the USA. Based on rumor, word of mouth, and disparate internet posting, I don't get the impression that one is significantly better than the other. Nevertheless, if you MUST use full sized stones, I suggest buying one rather than trying to re-invent the wheel; especially if your time and money are at issue.
On the other hand, if you have a few shop tools sitting around and you don't mind wasting a LOT of time you could reverse engineer something very much like the Gizmo or EZESharp by looking at pictures and save a few bucks; but I don't think it'd be worth it.
If you're looking to make money as an inventor by creating the ultimate sharpening system, all I can say is that no one's made very much so far with full size systems.
Smaller is another story.
A few OEM suppliers (including the already mentioned Ken Schwartz) supply other makers' stones, cut down to fit the Edge Pro jig, including Chosera and Shapton Pro as well as a few others and some strops too. I agree with Sal. To my mind, the EP is not only the tool most like what you seek but is also available for a fairly reasonable price.
That said, the one system which really does darn near everything really well is no system. If you want the most options, get yourself a few good stones, some sort of strop holding system, a few strops and a few strop compounds and learn to sharpen and strop free hand. Yes there's a learning curve, but it's not that steep.
FYI, "Scary Sharp" sharpening on sandpaper has some good points especially for carpentry tools and (perhaps) pocket knives. but they're outweighed when it comes to sharpening longer, kitchen-type knives. Although it gets a lot of play and discussion with intermediate level knife sharpeners, Scary Sharp is one of those things a lot of sharpeners try, but few stick with. Ordinary stones and strops are far more efficient; and since sandpaper doesn't last long and you can sharpen so many knives on a quality stone before you using it up, the efficiency trumps Scary Sharp's lower initial expense advantage, even home sharpeners.
A real issue is not only knowing how to sharpen, but knowing which materials work best for sharpening particular blades for particular tasks. In your case, that's really a better place to start. And honestly, I think you'd be better off asking specific questions about specific knives rather than wasting too much thought on the characteristics of an ideal, universal which doesn't exist.
On the other hand, who wouldn't want one?
Where's all this coming from? I have four separate sharpening kits -- oil stone, water stone, strop, and EP (with Chosera stones) -- and can use all of them pretty well. In terms of everything else, I haven't tried them all, but damn near.
Trust me on this,