However, I'm a little sceptic about the burr coming off. Especially with VG-10 that's not so evident, and when it comes off, it may leave a damaged edge as well. I believe the VG-10 burr has really to be abraded with very light, edge leading strokes.
Your description of pieces of burr remaining, leads me to infer that the VG-10 edge was insufficiently chased (and fatigued) rather than to conclude there's some specific problem between the process and VG-10.
In my experience the chasing and deburring process works as well with VG-10 as with most other modern stainless alloys; although I suppose problems might arise if the particular manufacturer's heat treatment made the alloy chip prone. And it's true that chippy VG-10 isn't uncommon.
By way of just a few examples, Tojro and Hattori VG-10 are not chippy, but Shun and Togiharu VG-10 are.
For whatever it's worth, I have no trouble chasing and deburring a Shun or any other VG-10 knife I've sharpened in the manner I described above. Chipping seem to come with use and (too vigorous or too frequent) steeling more than with sharpening. I've always found sharpening VG-10 fairly straightforward; with the worst part being VG-10's scratchy and unpleasant feel on the stones.
Also, it hasn't been my experience that honing (i.e., edge leading) strokes are more efficient for dissolving a burr than stropping (i.e., edge trailing) strokes. With either, it's a matter of knowing how to do it. Deburring with honing strokes requires you to rotate the knife somewhat with every (full length) stroke.