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Sorting Out Chocolate
How chocolate is made, and the differences among the many kinds available

by Molly Stevens

Whether you're baking the ultimate chocolate cake or making a chocolate sauce, chances are you'll have to make a decision about what kind of chocolate to use. But sorting out types of chocolate at the grocery store or gourmet shop can be confusing. Some are labeled "bittersweet" or "semisweet," and some are simply identified by cocoa percentages. To understand chocolate labels, you need to understand the terminology (see A chocolate lexicon) and know a few basic facts about how chocolate is made.

All real chocolate comes from the cocoa bean, the fruit of a tropical tree, Theobroma cacao. Much of the quality of the chocolate will depend on the origin and quality of the beans.

To make chocolate, processors roast and shell the cocoa beans, leaving only the centers, called nibs. These nibs are then pulverized or ground into a smooth liquid that's called chocolate liquor (although it contains no alcohol). When the chocolate liquor cools, it forms solid blocks.

Chocolate liquor is the basis for all things chocolate. Pure chocolate liquor is very dark and bitter and has only two components--cocoa solids and cocoa butter. The solids give chocolate its characteristic dark, strong flavor, and the cocoa butter translates to a smooth mouth feel.

In its natural state, chocolate liquor contains a little more than half (50% to 58%) cocoa butter and the rest solids. Early on, producers learned that by increasing the cocoa butter, they could create chocolate with a better sheen and smoother texture. So they developed a high-pressure filter process that breaks down chocolate liquor and separates the solids from the butter. They could then manipulate the chocolate to produce a range of styles.

To create eating chocolate, sugar and flavorings are added to the cocoa butter and solids. While some sugar is needed to make pure chocolate palatable, the best examples contain a high percentage of real chocolate and only small amounts of sugar or other additives.

This last detail is perhaps the most confusing when it comes to deciphering chocolate labels. When manufacturers list the percentage of chocolate on a label (a practice common in Europe and gaining popularity here), they often use the terms "X% of cocoa solids" or "X% of cocoa." What they're actually referring to is the total percentage by weight of cocoa solids and cocoa butter combined, in other words, the total percentage of ingredients derived purely from the cocoa bean. The remaining weight of the chocolate will consist of sugar, lecithin (a soy-derived emulsifier), and typically vanilla. Lesser quality chocolates also include other fats (like palm kernel oil) and flavorings.

What these percentages don't tell you, however, is the proportion of cocoa butter to cocoa solids. About the only way to figure out whether one chocolate has more cocoa butter than another is to compare the nutritional labels. As long as you're comparing first-quality dark chocolates without any additives, the one with a higher fat content will be the one with more cocoa butter. This will most likely be the more expensive of the two as well, since cocoa butter is more valuable than the solids for its texture and richness. Also, check the ingredient list while you're at it, because if the chocolate contains any dairy products or other types of fat, this will skew the fat percentage.

A chocolate lexicon

To make sense of the most common labels on chocolate, here is a brief lexicon. The minimum standards cited are those established by the FDA.

Unsweetened chocolate is the closest we can get in the marketplace to buying pure chocolate liquor since it contains nothing more than cocoa solids and cocoa butter. It can also be called chocolate, bitter chocolate, baking chocolate, and cooking chocolate.

Sweet chocolate is the most confusing category since it includes all dark chocolates that have any amount of sugar added. By law, sweet chocolate must contain a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor, but most good-quality supermarket and restaurant chocolates have closer to 55%. On the top end, some dark chocolates have as much as 70% or more.

Semisweet chocolate and bittersweet chocolate are both subcategories of sweet chocolate. While both must also contain a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor, semisweet chocolate will contain less sugar than sweet chocolate, and bittersweet even less.

Couverture means covering in French; it's a term used by professionals for a chocolate made with an exceptionally high percentage of cocoa butter. The high fat content means that the chocolate will melt very smoothly to create thin coatings that harden well.

Milk chocolate must contain a minimum of 10% real chocolate liquor (although some contain as much as 40%) and 12% whole milk.

White chocolate isn't really chocolate since it contains no cocoa solids but only cocoa butter. Currently the FDA has no standards of labeling for white chocolate, but these are being developed. In general, the best white chocolate will have a higher percentage of cocoa butter and lesser amounts of other fats.

German chocolate is a brand name for a sweet dark chocolate (sweeter than semisweet) that was developed by Samuel German, an employee of the Bakers chocolate company. The eponymous cake was created in Dallas in the 1950s.

From Fine Cooking #42, pp. 74-76
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